Hydraulic machines work on the basis of the following principles :

1. Liquids are incompressible.

2. Pascal's Law : "A change in applied pressure on a fluid is transmitted undiminished to every

point of the fluid and the walls of the container."

3. Pascal's Law implies 'Force Multiplication Capability."

If one has two cylinders connected together, a small one and a large one, and apply a small Force to the small cylinder, this would result in a given pressure. By Pascal's Principle, this pressure would be the same in the larger cylinder, but since the larger cylinder has more area, the force emitted by the second cylinder would be greater. This is represented by rearranging the pressure formula P = F/A, to F = PA. The pressure stayed the same in the second cylinder, but Area was increased, resulting in a larger Force. The greater the differences in the areas of the cylinders, the greater the potential force output of the big cylinder.

This is mainly how a hydraulic system, such as a vehicle lifting mechanism, works.

Tp be continued in part 4..

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